Why every website needs a certificate: TLS, SSL, and the “not secure”

Here’s the short answer: YES! You need to secure your website. Here’s why…


This is the most obvious reason. By using a security certificate, all traffic becomes encrypted. In other words, any data can only be seen by the customer and the server. Malicious eavesdroppers in the middle can only see where the traffic is headed and not the content.

It should go without saying, but if your site collects any kind of customer information you don’t have an option. Stop reading and go get a certificate immediately. Not taking the time to protect your users is not being a rebel — it’s grossly negligent and a betrayal of your customers’ trust.

Even those that do not collect sensitive information should consider locking down their site,Β  however.

SEO Optimization

Search Engine Optimization (or SEO) is a fancy marketing word for how well you rank on search engines such as Google. The exact details search engines use to rank sites is kept a secret, but search giants will share the occasional tip. Google has publicly announced that secure sites would be given a slight advantage.

Google Chrome’s “Not Secure” Warning

Can you tell Google is really trying to push an agenda here? As of January 2019, Chrome shows a warning on all sites that are not encrypted. This has absolutely no affect on how the site functions, but it may confuse users.

Okay, I’m on board, how do I make my site secure?

That depends. If you’re technically inclined, combine a Let’s Encrypt certificate with an NGINX reverse proxy.

For everyone else, all the common web hosts have packages for this (usually about $100/year). Talk to your hosting provider.

Certificate, TLS, SSL, HTTPS — WTF?

These terms are really all saying the same thing. To secure your site, you need a digitally signed TLS Certificate. Once it’s enabled and your site properly configured, your address will update from “http” to “https” short for HyperText Transport Protocol Secure.

Finally, that leaves us with SSL. Notice I mentioned you need a TLS certificate. That’s an acronym for the method of encryption the certificate uses. Long ago they used SSL, today they use TLS — but many marketing sites still use the terms interchangeably. This is technically incorrect, but welcome to the field of computer science. 🀷

Are you considering upgrading your site? Leave your questions below!

What is Robinhood?

Robinhood is a brokerage offering commission free trading. This is a big deal. Average online brokers charge between $4 and $12 per trade. These fees can really eat into your profits — especially for new investors with smaller portfolios.

In addition to the usual equity trades, Robinhood also offers services for options and crypto currencies with plans to continue expanding. Limited after hours trading is included, too! The zero-fee structure and multitude of offerings make Robinhood an attractive investment platform indeed.

Is it really free?

Yes, all trades are really commission free. You will pay no fees whatsoever to Robinhood.

Then how does Robinhood make money?

Well, several ways actually. That little bit of cash lying around while you wait for the right stock to buy? Similar to a bank, Robinhood will invest that cash for their own profit. This is the most widely reported tactic.

But… the above method is likely no more than a drop in the bucket for Robinhood. The real money is made through a process called Payment for Order Flow. This is when a brokerage sells transaction information in real time to high frequency trading firms. There is a lot of controversy around the issue as a whole. Interestingly, it was none other than Bernie Madoff that came up with the idea in the first place. Few liked the idea in principal, but none could resist the profitable temptation for long. Today, most brokerages all partake in the practice.

I was speaking with a professor just the other day who declared, “Robinhood is ripping all the millennials off.” After a short discourse, his real problem was not with Robinhood specifically, but with brokerages receiving payment for order flow. TD Ameritrade, Charles Schwab, and Vanguard all participate in this practice, just to name a few. If, like my professor, this is a deal breaker for you Interactive Brokers could be an alternative. In my opinion, order flow agreements should only enter the equation if you regularly buy thousands of shares at a time.

The final way Robinhood generates cash is with paid margin accounts. For a flat monthly fee, investors can receive up to 2x their normal buying power.

$2000 in margin for $10/month

Is Robinhood safe?

I’m going to consider “safe” in this context as the likelihood Robinhood is engaging in illegal activity. Obviously, all investments come with an amount of market risk.

I have no special insight, but I do believe Robinhood to be safe. I have had money invested with them since 2016 and have successfully sold, bought, deposited, and withdrawn cash with no surprises. Robinhood is also a member of FINRA, insured under SIPC. What’s that alphabet soup mean for you? Essentially, the Securities Investor Protection Corporation, a non-profit, has your back (up to $500,000). It’s very similar to the FDIC insurance from banks that people are more acquainted with. If Robinhood goes bankrupt for any reason, SIPC will kick in and ensure you receive your shares. There is one important difference, however. SIPC does not protect against illegal activity. If Robinhood knowingly defrauds investors, SIPC insurance is not applicable. While I believe the risk for this is near-zero, it’s a fact worth knowing.

Robinhood’s investors include Kleiner Perkins, Google Ventures, and even Snoop Dogg. So, if the executives take the money and run off to a non-extradition country, at least you’ll be in good company.

User Experience

Robinhood’s interface, while beautiful, lacks the more thorough information veteran investors are likely accustomed to. This can be easily remedied by researching on another platform and trading with Robinhood.

Don’t expect to be able to fine tune the graph either. Only the presets are available and it’s impossible to overlay multiple stocks, or other indicators to identify fundamentals like death crosses.

Customer support is also lacking. There is no phone number to call, no online chatroom to help. Support is restricted solely to email and can reportedly be a little on the slow side (Reddit link to unhappy customer). I have not had the need to contact them yet, so have no first hand experience to report.

What’s this buzz around cash management?

Recently, RH announced that a Cash Management service will be coming soon. They expect to offer 3% interest on the cash balance in your trading account and let you spend it via a debit card just like a regular checking account.

There is a pretty significant catch, however. Unlike a regular bank, these cash management accounts are not going to be FDIC insured. Originally, Robinhood claimed SIPC protection would apply, but SIPC President Stephen Harbeck quickly refuted their claim.

Until more information is released, it’s impossible to do more than speculate. For now, I’d recommend sticking with a high interest online savings account for collecting risk-free returns and using Robinhood for equities.

Time to take the plunge!

Overall, it’s a great platform for beginning investors or smaller balances that would otherwise be eaten away by trading fees. The compounding nature of investments means the best time to start was yesterday, but the second best time is today.

If you’ve decided to pull the trigger and invest with Robinhood, please consider using this referral link. We’ll both receive a free stock. I would never recommend a product I don’t use myself. I rely on Robinhood for the majority of my stock and options trading.

Still have questions? What’s your favorite brokerage? Let me know in the comments!

How to unit test, the right way

It’s important to understand not only what unit testing is, but how to implement unit tests correctly. Many developers live their lives going through the motions, scraping by — but not you. No, you’re a cut above the rest; on a quest to write unit tests that are the envy of your colleagues. Sound like you? Keep reading. Not resonating? keep reading anyway — I’m sick of cleaning up after you. πŸ™‚

Unit testing is the process of breaking up a program into components to test individually. This can save many hours of manual QA before release. With proper unit tests, you can be sure the program is still working as expected, even after sweeping code changes.

At the start, unit tests can feel like a waste of time. It’s true, doing them properly will require you to write more code, but I promise the time you’ll save in the long run far outweighs the time spent writing tests.

Defining Scope

A common dilemma when first learning: properly defining scope. It’s easy to make the tests either too broad or too specific. The guideline I found to be the most useful? Think of the test as documentation. When writing a function, it’s common to describe its inputs and expected outputs. Unit tests verify this input/output relationship. They should not care how the insides of the method work, so long as it yields the expected result.

In general, a unit test should:

  • Test only a single method
  • Provide specific arguments to the method
  • Verify the result

Let’s dive deeper into each of these points.

Testing a single method

This is exactly what it sounds like. A test should target a single method. Take a look at the following pseudo code.

def test_add():
    assertEqual(8, add(5,3))

The snippet above presents a simple test for a function called add. If we want to make the test more robust, append lines to the existing test function, do not needlessly create another test unless there is a clear difference. For instance, specific edge cases are commonly factored into their own testing method. When incorporating bug fixes, it’s also common to add a specialized test case that references the issue to safeguard against repeating past mistakes.

This is good:

def test_add():
    assertEqual(8, add(5, 3))
    assertEqual(-1, add(1, -2))
def test_mult():
    assertEquals(10, mult(5, 2))

In contrast, this is generally frowned upon:

def test_add_simple():
    assertEqual(8, add(5, 3))
def test_add_negative():
    assertEqual(-1, add(1, -2))

More than one test for a single method. As mentioned above, an exception could be made if the negative instance is addressing a specific issue in a bug tracker. In that case, a comment should be added with a link to the issue or bug id.

The below snippet is also bad… more than one method tested in a single unit test.

def test_math_functions():
    assertEquals(8, add(5, 3))
    assertEquals(-1, add(1, -2))
    assertEquals(10, mult(5, 2))

Provide specific arguments the method

Do not generate a unique argument every time the test is run. Hard coding is not only okay, but often encouraged (in this context, don’t get carried away)! It’s imperative that unit tests are deterministic. If method arguments are generated on the fly, one developer may get an error while another passes every test. Most important takeaway: testing arguments should be constant across every instance of the program. Let’s look at an example.

Suppose you have a faster way to implement len called my_len() that you want to test.

This is good:

def test_my_len():
    assertEqual(3, my_len("abc"))
    assertEqual(0, my_len([]))
    assertEqual(3, my_len([1,2,3]))

This is bad:

def test_my_len():
    l = generate_random_list()
    assertEqual(len(l), my_len(l))

Different code paths could be tested depending on the list that’s generated.

Another cannon, always use the least amount of assert statements possible for full coverage. If my_len treats “abc” and “abcd” exactly the same way internally, there is no reason to write two assert statements, just pick one. On the other hand, if the method has a specific if statement to check for a null argument, then absolutely include that.

This is good:

def test_my_len():
    assertEqual(3, my_len("abc"))
    # Check for defined edge case
    assertEqual(-1, my_len(None))

This is bad:

def test_my_len():
    assertEqual(3, my_len("abc"))
    assertEqual(4, my_len("abcd"))
    assertEqual(5, my_len("abcde"))

There’s no reason to believe “abc” would pass and “abcd” would fail. The same code path is being tested multiple times. This is wasteful.

Verify the result

Not much to say here. Like above, the result should also be deterministic. One stylistic note is worth mentioning. Most unit testing frameworks expect assertEquals(...) to have the expected result as the first argument, and the test result as the second.

assertEqual(expected, actual)

Of course, the tests will work if this is backwards, but your coworkers may scoff.

Testing for exceptions

Testing for exceptions is equally important. If the method is expected to throw an exception with certain arguments, test it! The implementation varies by language. Typically it looks something like this:

assertRaises(IllegalArgumentException, is_numeric(null))

The test case will only pass if an exception is thrown. If a different exception occurs or it returns normally, then it will fail — alerting you to the problem.

Test Driven Development

I firmly believe all projects should use unit tests. This, however, is not what test driven development is.

Test driven development refers to the practice of writing unit tests before the method implementations. It may seem backwards at first, but there are a few key advantages.

  • Start thinking about the edge cases early
  • Forces the spec to be strictly defined in advance
  • Impossible to “forget” to write those unit tests πŸ™‚

Side note: this is becoming more and more common in education. Students get instant feedback on how they’re progressing on an assignment and practice with industry methodology. Unit tests can easily be included in Jupyter Notebooks for the ultimate teaching tool.

Concrete Examples by Language

These are brief examples meant to serve as a reference.

For demonstration purposes, each illustration assumes you want to test a class called Palindrome. The class has a function called is_palindrome() that takes a single string argument and returns a boolean.

Unit Testing in Python

Python has dozens of unit testing libraries. We’re going to stick to the aptly named unittest because it’s built into Python. If you want an even simpler alternative, pytest may be worth a look.

The Palindrome class in palindrome.py.

class Palindrome():
    def is_palindrome(s):
        return s == s[::-1]

To create the unit test, start with a new file test.py.

import unittest
from palindrome import Palindrome as p

class TestPalindrome(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_is_palindrome(self):
if __name__ == "__main__":

Simply run the test file to see the results.

$ python test.py
Ran 1 test in 0.000s


Unit Testing in Java

JUnit is the defacto standard in Java. First, you will need to add the JUnit dependency to the project. Here’s the quick version for Eclipse:

  1. Right click the Java project, open Project Properties
  2. Build Path > Configure Build Path
  3. Click the Libraries tab
  4. Click Add Library… on the right side
  5. Select JUnit from the list and hit next
  6. Ensure the newest version is selected in the drop down
  7. Hit Finish followed by OK

IntelliJ IDEs offer to include JUnit automatically when you start writing the test. Simply accept.

With the JUnit dependency added, create a new class called PalindromeTest. Note the special @Test annotation.

import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
// Import the class to be tested
import com.technohedge.example.Palindrome.isPalindrome;

public class PalindromeTest {
    public void isPalindromeTest() {
        assertEquals(true, isPalindrome("racecar");
        assertEquals(false, isPalindrome("abc");

Altman Z Score – Determining Bankruptcy Probability with QuantConnect

The Altman Z-Score is an indicator used to determine a company’s likelihood of declaring bankruptcy. A total of five ratios are necessary for the calculation. Lucky for us, they are all readily available for public companies.

The Formula

A = Working Capital / Total Assets
B = Retained Earnings / Total Assets
C = Earnings Before Interest / Total Assets
D = Market Value of Equity / Total Liabilities
E = Sales / Total Assets

Then the Altman Z Score can be calculated by:
Z = 1.2A + 1.4B + 3.3C + 0.6D + 1.0E

The relative probability of default is determined by the Z value. Specifically,

Z β‰₯ 3 β†’ Safe
1.81 ≀ Z < 3 β†’ Warning
Z < 1.81 β†’ Danger

Note that these cutoffs are from the original Altman Z Score. Different intervals have been derived for emerging markets. More information is available on Wikipedia.


This algorithm is heavily based on code from Aaron Gilman. It has been updated to work with new versions of QuantConnect.

It works through universe selection. Universe selection allows us to filter equities based on predefined search criteria. In this case, it selects equities that have 1) all the necessary data available for calculating the ratios and 2) a Z Score greater than 1.81. Next, the results are sorted by EBITDA and capital is equally divided among the top 100 equities. The portfolio is re-balanced on the first trading day each month.

Historic Accuracy

In Altman’s initial publication, the Altman Z Score was 72% accurate in predicting bankruptcy within two years. False negatives, however, were extremely low at just 6%. This initial accuracy has not only been proven, but actually found to be a conservative estimate. Over the years, Altman’s model was found to be 80-90% accurate — but with a higher false negative rate of around 15%.

Today, Altman’s Z Score is widely accepted. Originally designed for manufacturing companies with over $1 million in assets, it’s now used in a variety of countries and industries, though sometimes with slight modifications.


As with most balance sheet models, the Alman Z Score should not be applied to financial companies. The balance sheets of Wallstreet companies are notoriously opaque and off-balance sheet items are numerous — making accurate calculations nearly impossible.

Jupyter Notebook: Getting Started and Installation

Jupyter Notebook provides a simple way to run code in Python, R, Scala and more. While it’s mainly used in research related fields, Jupyter can be applied to a wide variety of applications.

Jupyter is especially useful for two groups in particular. Data scientists and machine learning experts benefit from modular execution. They can load a large data set once and try many different experiments/code changes; saving an enormous amount of time in the process. Academics make up the other group. Documenting work as you go could not be easier. Professors can auto grade students work using tools like Vocareum, built to work with Jupyter.

Above is a screenshot directly from a notebook. It runs in a web interface and is quite easy to use. Markdown syntax can be added to create documentation blocks — much more expressive than the brief inline comments we programmers often get used to.

Installing Jupyter Notebook

Some prefer the native installation while others like to keep everything in a self-contained Docker container. I will outline both methods — choose the one that works best for you.


Jupyter Notebook is easy to install with pip. I assume you already have Python and pip installed. If that’s the case, simply run

python3 -m pip install jupyter #for Python3
python -m pip install jupyter  #for Python2

Congratulations, that’s it! To run Jupyter, simply open up a new terminal in the directory you want the notebooks to be saved. Then type:

jupyter notebook

Your default browser should automatically open to the Jupyter instance.


This guide assumes Docker is already installed. If you’re unfamiliar with Docker, please check out their guide.

Using Jupyter with Docker is easy, a container is already maintained. Simply run the container with the following command:

docker run -it -v /path/to/jupyter/directory:/work --net=host --rm jupyter/all-spark-notebook

The -v flag is used to share a local directory with Docker. /path/to/jupyter/directory should point to a local directory where you want the notebooks to be saved. When inside the Jupyter instance, be sure to save everything inside the /work directory, or it will not be saved.

Once the Docker container is launched, a unique URL will be printed to the console. Copy and paste that into a web browser and you’re good to go! You may notice the example below says or a seemingly random string of numbers. If this is the case for you, be sure to substitute For instance, open a web browser and go directly to the URL Your token will be different!

Your first Jupyter project

With Jupyter successfully installed, your screen should be similar to the one pictured below.

Once Jupyter Notebook is installed and launched, we can create our first actual notebook. If you installed with Docker, be sure to click on the work directory first. Then click the New dropdown, then select Python 3 (or a different language if you prefer).

All that remains is filling it with content. Each content block is a cell. There are two main types of cells: code and Markdown.

Let’s create a new code cell.

Run the code in a cell by clicking the play button with the cell selected, or by hitting ctrl + enter on the keyboard.

Now, let’s demonstrate one of the main benefits of Jupyter. Say we need to load data, which takes a lot of time. If this was a standard Python script, the data would have to be loaded during each subsequent run. This is not the case with Jupyter. We can simply put the data loading code into its own cell.

Saving & Checkpoints

To save your work, simply click the Save & Checkpoint button.

As the name suggests, manually saving also creates a checkpoint. Checkpoints are a form of basic version control — you can easily roll back to any checkpoint later on. Work in a notebook will also be periodically auto-saved, but checkpoints must be created manually.

To share your work with someone else, simply send them the .ipynb file. They can launch the file using their own Jupyter installation and pick up right where you left off. While you can use Jupyter with a version control system (like Git of Mercurial) by checking in the .ipynb files, it’s not easy to see the individual code changes later. This is my single biggest complaint when using Jupyter. If anyone has found a solution, I would love to hear it!

What is Node.JS, really?

You’ve heard of Node.JS (probably) but what exactly is it? Should you care? There has been a lot of buzz around Node.JS lately — and there’s traction to back it up. Some major companies have adopted the framework including PayPal, LinkedIn, Netflix, Uber, eBay, and many more.

As the name implies, Node.JS is powered by JavaScript. In brief, its an event driven framework that competes with the likes of PHP, Django, and other web technologies.

What is it used for?

Really, Node.JS can be used for just about anything. From dev tools to production deployments. Since Node runs server-side JavaScript, it’s just as capable as any other language. Support for reading ports and files — functionality that is usually restricted when running in the browser, is now available at your fingertips.

Realistically speaking, when people refer to Node.JS, they typically mean Node.JS + Express, essentially a web server. The entire stack can be handled this way, removing the need for Apache or NGINX. This framework can be a great choice for real-time applications and building a custom API.

What makes it so popular?

JavaScript is arguably the most popular language on the planet. Many programmers have a basic familiarity with the language; but the benefits don’t end there. Over 73% of websites rely on JavaScript for important functionality. It’s used to create the beautiful, interactive experiences we’ve grown accustomed to. Traditionally, this creates a divide between front end and back end development. While back end developers learn PHP, Java, or, gasp, C, front end developers learn JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. Not with Node.JS. Both front end and back end development can be done entirely with JavaScript. This simplifies the stack and eliminates impedance mismatch.

The need… the need for speed! Node relies on Chromium’s V8 engine. This means the JavaScript doesn’t stay as raw (and potentially slow) JavaScript. Instead, it’s compiled into machine code, much like C would be. This has huge implications for both performance and efficiency of the application. An uncorroborated post claims Walmart’s overall CPU usage never exceeded 1% after switching to Node.JS, even with over 200 million daily users.

A thriving community. Community support is truly top notch. Tutorials, guides, and troubleshooting information is available in abundance. The package manager, NPM is also top notch. Tracking and installing project dependencies could not be easier. Want bootstrap? Easy, npm install bootstrap. Similar to pip’s requirements.txt, you can create a config.json file outlying all the dependencies. Once complete, a simple npm install will ensure everything is ready to go.

Those of you that prefer NoSQL like databases can rejoice. MongoDB (and similar) are commonly used within a Node application and support is prolific. Object Role Modeling is quickly becoming the preferred method to develop in Node.JS — but not to worry, those that prefer standard relational databases have plenty of support too.

What’s the catch?

Node.JS is heavily event driven. I consider this both a pro and a con. Event driven programming (more on this in the next section) can be tricky at first and bugs can be hard to track down.

JavaScript doesn’t have a standard library. Sure, there are community packages for just about anything, but there’s not one package but six or more. Choice is not always good, with six ways to do things, there’s often 5 ways to do it incorrectly. The default packages included with Node.JS can even be replaced if you’re unsatisfied.

Production environments are much more complex than standard Apache/NGINX setups. Error handling is essential, since just one bug will crash the entire process. To utilize multi-threaded systems, one server should be started for every thread. This necessitates a local load balancer to share the same port and a method to cluster the separate instances.

Can we address this “event driven” thing?

This is best illustrated by analogy. Dan York has an excellent article explaining the event driven model. In his post he compares the situation to ordering fast food. In a traditional thread based model, one person would get to the front of the line, place an order and stand around waiting until his food was prepped; holding up everyone behind him. In contrast, an event based model would order the food, then step aside until he’s notified that his order is up. This way, the patron behind him can place an order immediately.

Here’s some pseudo code to illustrate the point. A traditional thread based model might look something like this:

var currentUser = db.getUser(userId);

In contrast, an event driven model uses callbacks.

db.getuser(userId, function(user, error){
    if (!error) {
    } else {

The anonymous callback function is called only after the user information is retrieved from the database. In the event driven model, it’s likely doSomethingElse() will be executed before logging the user information. In the thread based model, of course, this would never happen. We’re stuck “waiting in line” for the database call (the thread blocks) before continuing with the program’s execution.

Do you plan on using Node.JS for your next project? Wish your company would make the switch? I’d love to hear your thoughts!

A Hands-On Introduction to Machine Learning

First, let me begin by setting some expectations. This is not a guide for the hardcore ML researchers out there. This is meant to be a practical introduction to machine learning that any computer scientist can follow, without much prior knowledge of the ML domain. I feel that there are many guides that focus solely on the academics of ML, but neglect to mention how simple it is to apply towards real life applications. Even naive approaches are often surprisingly effective.

To get started, we need to install scikit and other dependencies.

pip install numpy scipy scikit-learn

For simple implementations like we’ll see today, most of the challenge revolves around data prep. Our first step is to download the JSON training data from Kaggle. If you don’t already have an account, you’ll need to create one now. Once the account is created, visit the “What’s Cooking?” competition page and select the data tab to access the downloads.

Next, we need to format the data. A CSV format will be used, with each column representing a different ingredient and each row a single recipe. In ML lingo, the ingredients are features, the data we use as a basis for the predictions. Labels, the answer to each recipe, will be generated similarly. There’s nothing too novel with the code here, just some data wrangling.

Create a file called parser.py with the following code:

#!/usr/bin/env python3

# Enable python2 compatability
from __future__ import print_function

import json

def main():
    # Define input/output file names
    train_file = "train.json"
    test_file = "test.json"
    train_file_out = "train.csv"
    test_file_out = "test.csv"
    train_file_out_labels = "train-labels.txt"
    json_data = None
    with open(train_file, 'r') as f:
        json_data = f.read()
    train_obj = json.loads(json_data)

    # Empty arrays to hold information
    labels_train = []
    labels_test = []
    # ingredients is defined as a set to prevent duplicates
    ingredients = set()

    # Generate corresponding labels and simultaneously make
    # exhaustive set of all posible cuisines (labels)
    with open(train_file_out_labels, 'w') as f:
        for recipe in train_obj:
            label = recipe["cuisine"]
            print(label, file=f)
            for ingredient in recipe["ingredients"]:

    with open(test_file, 'r') as f:
        json_data = f.read()
    test_obj = json.loads(json_data)

    # The test file may introduce ingredients not included in training set
    # This ensures they're included
    for recipe in test_obj:
        for ingredient in recipe["ingredients"]:

    # Transform set to list to ensure iteration order is constant
    ingredients_list = list(ingredients)

    # Generate the CSV files
    generate_csv_for_each_recipe(ingredients_list, train_obj, train_file_out)
    generate_csv_for_each_recipe(ingredients_list, test_obj, test_file_out)

def generate_csv_for_each_recipe(ingredients_list, json_obj, output_file):
    Creates an output csv file with each ingredient being a column
    and each recipe a row. 1 will represent the recipe contains the
    given ingredient if the recipe includes that incredient, else 0

    ingredients_list -- the full list of ingredients (without duplicates)
    json_obj -- the json object with recipes returned by json.loads
    output_file -- the name of the generated CSV file

    # Loop thru each recipe
    with open(output_file, 'w') as f:
        for recipe in json_obj:
            rl = set()
            first = True
            s = ""
            for ingredient in recipe["ingredients"]:
            # This builds the csv row of ingredients for current recipe
            # Add 1 for ingredient if included in recipe; else 0
            for j in ingredients_list:
                # Don't prepend "," for first item
                if first != True:
                    s += ","  
                    first = False

                # Add 1 or 0 as explained above
                if j not in rl:
                    s += "0"
                    s += "1"
            print(s, file=f)

if __name__ == "__main__":

Create a new python script called train.py. Add some simple imports and variables that will prove useful later.

import numpy as np
from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

filename = "train.csv"
label_file = "train-labels.txt"
test_file = "test.csv"
prediction_output = "predictions.txt"

Load the data files generated previously with the parser script.

# Load the training features into a np array
features = np.loadtxt(filename, delimiter=',', dtype=np.uint8)
# Load the labels
with open(label_file) as f:
    labels = f.readlines()
# Strip any new line characters or extra spaces
labels = [x.strip() for x in labels]
# Convert to np array
labels = np.asarray(labels)

The next step is to split the training data into a training set and a testing set. This will allow us to estimate how well the classifier does on the “real” test data. Think about it, the testing data from Kaggle does not include the answers (labels). To have an easy way to see how well we’re doing, it’s necessary to split the data we do have answers for. It is not okay to test with the same features used in training — the accuracy will be artificially high. Scikit includes a handy feature to split the data for us.

# Split data up into training and test data
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(features, labels)

Instantiate and train the classifier with the split data set created from the last step. Selecting the best classifier is beyond the scope of this article, so we’ll just use the Logistic Regression classifier in this example, which performs pretty well. Scikit has an example testing different classifiers, if you want to explore.

print("Starting training...")
clf = LogisticRegression()
clf.fit(X_train, y_train)
score = clf.score(X_test, y_test)
print("Model has accuracy of " + str(score * 100) + "%")

Let’s use the same classifier to make predictions over the Kaggle test set, the one we don’t know the answers to. We’ll format this as simply one prediction per line.

print("Predicting over the Kaggle test set")
test_data = np.loadtxt(test_file, delimiter=',', dtype=np.uint8)
predictions = clf.predict(test_data)

with open(prediction_output, "w") as f:
    for prediction in predictions:
        print(prediction, file=f)

The last script we’ll write takes the predictions created in the last step and formats it in the specific way Kaggle expects. This will let us see how we performed against other solutions to the What’s Cooking Challenge.

Create a new script called kaggle.py. As usual, import the required modules and define a few helpful variables.

#!/usr/bin/env python3

from __future__ import print_function
import json

predict_file = "predictions.txt"
test_file = "test.json"
output_file = "kaggle.csv"

Read the prediction file

with open(predict_file) as f:
    labels = f.readlines()
labels = [x.strip() for x in labels]

Open the Kaggle test file and parse as JSON

with open(test_file, 'r') as f:
    json_data = f.read()
obj = json.loads(json_data)

Open the output file for writing and format as the Kaggle spec requires.

with open(output_file, "w") as out:
    # Print CSV headers
    print("id,cuisine", file=out)

    i = 0
    # Iterate through each recipe in the test file
    # Follow the spec in CSV format,
    # the recipe id followed by the cuisine prediction
    for recipe in obj:
        idx = recipe["id"]
        ingredient = labels[i]
        print(str(idx) + "," + ingredient, file=out)
        i += 1

To see how well you did, submit the generated kaggle.csv file to the Kaggle competition.

The complete code is available on GitHub.

For such a naive solution, we did pretty well here — successfully classifying over 77% of the recipes. There is, of course, room for improvement. It’s unlikely you’ll top the leader board with ready-made classifiers, but it’s close enough for many real-life problems and an excellent start to a future in machine learning.

NextCloud vs. OwnCloud: History & Feature Comparison

If you’ve done research into self-hosted cloud storage, there are two main contenders that typically pop up: Nextcloud and ownCloud. So which one’s right for you? What’s the real difference between the two? Let’s find out.

For the impatient among you, I’m going to get right to the point. Nextcloud is the superior option in nearly every case. Why? I guess you’ll have to keep reading.

The story began long ago (2010), in a far away land (Germany). Frank Karlitschek, a KDE developer, started working on ownCloud. He envisioned an alternative to DropBox, one more focused on privacy. In his blog, he argued “Privacy is the foundation of democracy.” In 2011, ownCloud Inc. was born in conjunction with the original software release. The company went on to raise 6.3 million USD in 2014 as it started to target more lucrative enterprise clients. The future looked bright for the young startup, but just two years later, things got messy.

On April 27, 2016 Frank Karlitschek left ownCloud. A few short days later, he founded Nextcloud, a direct rival. Karlitschek stayed pretty tight-lipped about the whole situation, but actions speak very loudly here. Leaving the company you co-founded and days later creating a competitor is a bold move indeed.

Investors agreed. Behind the scenes, ownCloud was on the verge of sealing a major deal. Karlitschek, along with several other core members, abandoning ship to form Nextcloud, was more than enough to send investors reeling. And the final nail in the coffin? Nextcloud decided to offer free support for any users migrating from ownCloud.

Just days later, ownCloud (the US company) shut its doors for the last time. So why the debate? OwnCloud is dead, right? Well… not quite. Like a good zombie, it won’t go down easy. While US based ownCloud Inc. had all its credit revoked, the parent German company, ownCloud GmbH, carries on to this day.

Karlitschek has never discussed the exact reasons leading up to his departure, though in the blog post announcing his resignation, he states, “…the company could have done a better job recognizing the achievements of the community. It sometimes has a tendency to control the work too closely and discuss things internally.” Most speculate ownCloud’s lack of interest in the outside development community ultimately lead to Karlitchek’s decision.

Today, OwnCloud continues to focus on its enterprise business, having a number of features available only to paying customers. In contrast, Nextcloud focuses heavily on security features: brute force protection, 2FA, video verification, and more. Nextcloud also remains 100% open source. This means all its features are included standard — enterprise customers just pay for support.

Enough history, let’s get on with the feature list.

Feature NextCloud ownCloud
Open source βœ“ Mostly
Unlimited storage βœ“ βœ“
Self-hosted βœ“ βœ“
Mobile app support βœ“ βœ“
Automatic media upload βœ“ βœ“
Integration with Outlook βœ“ Premium only
Text search βœ“ βœ“
Version control βœ“ βœ“
Calendar, contacts, etc βœ“ x
Notifications βœ“ x
Server-side encryption βœ“ βœ“
Client-side encryption Yes, but buggy x
Access controls Great Good

Normally, I would jump right into the feature comparison, but I felt in this unique case, the history should play a role in the decision. Which software do you use? Let me know in the comments.

Death Cross – QuantConnect Algorithm

Death crosses are useful as trailing indicators. Specifically, a death cross occurs when the long term moving average passes above the short term moving average. The graph below depicts a death cross, highlighted in pink. It is a sign that the security is likely to fall in value.

Graph showing example of a death cross
Chart generated from bigcharts.com

Intuitively, this makes sense. The moving average is a trend over time. If the short term moving average falls below the long term moving average, it’s an indicator something has recently changed — for the worse.

Like any indicator, a death cross is far from foolproof. Since it’s a lagging indicator, if the downturn is short lived, by the time the indicator forms, the equity may have resumed an upward trend. In this instance, acting on the death cross is disadvantageous to the investor.

The opposite of a death cross is a golden cross.Β That is, a golden cross occurs if the short term moving average crosses above the long term average. A golden cross appears in the graph above in early August and is a sign of an upward trend.

Below are the results of a simple algorithm using death and golden crosses. The algorithm will go long on a golden cross and liquidate on a death cross.

Crosses really shine when used in conjunction with other indicators. The performance of crosses alone is far from groundbreaking.

Feel free to modify the algorithm on QuantConnect (GitHub). Changing the slow/fast period or symbol is a good place to start.

Have any algorithms that use crosses? A burning question I neglected to answer? Let me know in the comments!

Building your first algorithm in QuantConnect (C#)

This post will guide you through developing your very own trading algorithm in QuantConnect. A familiarity in C# and basic finance knowledge is assumed, but I’ll be gentle — promise! Already an expert? Skip to the code.

More comfortable with Python? View the alternate tutorial.

The algorithm we’ll build is based on the principle of a proportionated simple moving average (P-SMA). We will choose a benchmark (SPY in this example) and, based on its simple moving average, decide if the market will go up or down. If we predict the market will go up, we will invest in equities that provide fast growth but increased risk. Otherwise, we invest in safe assets, such as treasury bonds. Proportionated means the decision is not binary. For example, we may calculate 30% of our portfolio should be relatively risk-less and allocate 70% for high growth equities.

Time to code! Any algorithm in QuantConnect starts the same way:

namespace QuantConnect.Algorithm.CSharp{
    public class ProportionalSimpleMovingAverage : QCAlgorithm{
        public override void Initialize(){

First, we instantiate the class. The name can be anything you like, but it’s important to extend QCAlgorithm. Whenever an algorithm is started, Initialize is called exactly once and allows us to setup the properties of our algorithm. First, we’ll define some member variables. This should go immediately before Initialize, inside the class.

private static Symbol _spy = QuantConnect.Symbol.Create("SPY", SecurityType.Equity, Market.USA);
private static Symbol _qqq = QuantConnect.Symbol.Create("QQQ", SecurityType.Equity, Market.USA);
private static Symbol _tlt = QuantConnect.Symbol.Create("TLT", SecurityType.Equity, Market.USA);
private static Symbol _agg = QuantConnect.Symbol.Create("AGG", SecurityType.Equity, Market.USA);
private Symbol _benchmark = _spy;
private List<Symbol> _risk_on_symbols = new List<Symbol>{
private List<Symbol> _risk_off_symbols = new List<Symbol>{
private RollingWindow<decimal> _close_window;

public override void Initialize(){

When coding in C#, a common convention is to denote member variables with an underscore. The first four lines create the “symbol”, a reference to specify the desired equity. Next, we define our “benchmark”. This is the equity that will be used as the basis for all future calculations. Moving on to the lists: remember, we want to invest in either high growth or low risk assets depending on the market. _risk_on_symbols will be invested when we want to add risk to our portfolio — predicting an upswing. _risk_off_symbols are our low risk investments. You should feel free to experiment with different symbols. You can add as many or as few equities as you like to either list. The final member variable is_close_window. This is a rolling window — a special list that will only keep a fixed number of the most recent elements. Specifically, we’ll be using a window size of 84, and storing decimal numbers (daily closing price of the benchmark equity); because the window is not static, we declare it here but instantiate the window later inside the Initialize method.

Let’s begin to flesh out initialize.

public override void Initialize(){
    SetStartDate(2016, 01, 01);
    SetEndDate(2016, 10, 14);

    AddEquity(_spy, Resolution.Daily);
    AddEquity(_qqq, Resolution.Daily);
    AddEquity(_tlt, Resolution.Daily);
    AddEquity(_agg, Resolution.Daily);

Methods such as SetCash, SetStartDate, and SetEndDate are only applicable when running a back-test. They are completely ignored during live trading.

AddEquity is essential to any algorithm. By adding the equity in the initialize method, the relevant information will be made available throughout the algorithm. Resolution.Daily specifies data will be given with a daily window. Other options are tick, second, minute, and hour.

_close_window = new RollingWindow<decimal>(84);
IEnumerable<TradeBar> slices = History(_benchmark, 84);
foreach(TradeBar bar in slices){

The code here is responsible for initializing the rolling window. The first line creates the window and sets the type and size to decimal and 84 respectively. Next the History function is called to get historical information about the benchmark during the last 84 days. Finally, we loop through every day of historic data and add the closing price to the rolling window. This ensures the algorithm will always have 84 days of information to use for calculations.

        TimeRules.AfterMarketOpen(_benchmark, 10),

The snippet above will complete our Initialize method. This is the main driver of your algorithm. It schedules a method called EveryDayOnMarketOpen to run every day that SPY (the benchmark) is trading, 10 minutes after market open.

Next, we build a simple function to assist with calculating averages over various window sizes.

private decimal GetRollingAverage(int n, RollingWindow<decimal> window){
    decimal sum = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++){
        sum += window[i];
    return sum / n;

This function accepts two parameters, an integer n denotes the number of days to look back, and a RollingWindow over which to do the averaging. The for loop will iterate through the window until it reaches the nth entry. At that point, the sum will be divided by n and the simple average will be returned.

Since setup is over with, let’s move on to the heart of the algorithm by defining EveryDayOnMarketOpen.

public void EveryDayOnMarketOpen(){
    if (Transactions.GetOpenOrders().Count > 0){

Nothing groundbreaking here. We just return immediately if there are any open orders. In theory, this should never happen. Our algorithm will submit market orders 10 minutes after market open, and is run once per trading day. If this block does execute, it’s likely an indicator of a more serious, underlying problem. Nevertheless, better safe than sorry.

IEnumerable<TradeBar> slices = History(_benchmark, 1);
TradeBar last_bar = slices.Last();
decimal bench_close = last_bar.Close;
decimal bench_mean_short = GetRollingAverage(21, _close_window);
decimal bench_mean_long = GetRollingAverage(84, _close_window);

The History method returns TradeBars, representing data on the specified equity. We use the History function to get yesterday’s closing price and add it to the rolling window. The final two lines calculate the average closing price over the specified period. Our algorithm compares moving averages over two different window sizes, 21 and 84 days. These are arbitrary (but common) intervals. I encourage you to experiment by changing these values. Note that if you want to look back past 84 days the rolling window size will need to be increased in the Initialize function. QuantConnect does offer convenience methods to calculate various indicators to use in your projects, which makes code easier to read.

decimal risk_on_pct = (bench_mean_short / bench_close) *
                        ((bench_mean_short * 2m / bench_mean_long) * .25m) /
decimal risk_off_pct = (bench_close / bench_mean_short) *
                        ((bench_mean_long * 2m / bench_mean_short) * .25m) /

foreach (Symbol sid in _risk_on_symbols){
    SetHoldings(sid, risk_on_pct);
foreach (Symbol sid in _risk_off_symbols){
    SetHoldings(sid, risk_off_pct);

Finally, the exciting stuff! The “risk on” and “risk off” percentages are calculated using our history data. SetHoldings will allocate a percentage of your portfolio to the specified equity. For instance, SetHoldings(_spy, 1) will buy as much SPY as you can afford, 100% of your portfolio. If you have a margin account and want to leverage your position, simply allocate more than 100%. SetHoldings(_spy, 2) will buy twice as many SPY shares as you can actually afford.

That’s it! You now have an algorithm that can trade automatically on your behalf. I encourage you to experiment changing/improving the algorithm on your own.

This example is also available on GitHub.